政府于2016年推出的净电能计量（Net Energy Metering )，是一项推广安装太阳能板系统在屋顶的可再生能源计划。用户可在屋顶安装太阳能板以自行发电与用电，太阳能板系统所产生的余量电能将输出到公用电缆系统 (国能），以「一比_」等价抵消电费。此计划适用于家庭、商业、工业及农业用户。 根据资料，我国拥有320万个有地房产、 45万栋店屋、9万栋排楼工厂、2万1000家独立式工厂和1000家购物中心。此前，消费者将太阳能光伏发电系统所产生的余量电能以每千瓦 31仙出售给国能，却以超过每千瓦时（kWh ) 50仙的价格向国能购买电能，导致净电能计量 政策在过去没有得到很好的回响。
然而，自去年1月1日开始，电能的购 买价格已不存在差异，以「一对一抵消」的, 方式，即整体电能消耗（Total electricity consumption )减去太阳能生产电能（total electricity generation )乘以电价。这政策让消费者能享受更低的电费，使得太阳能屋顶更具吸引力。
为全世界的屋顶都装 上太阳能系统，是Plus Solar Systems创办人兼首席执行员许传真的梦 想。我国曾定下2025年达 到再生能源发电量占总发电量20%的目标，然而截 至2019年尾，我国再生能源发电量的占比仅4%，只 用5年的时间追赶剩余的16% 就像是不可能的任 务，但许传真表示：「不是没有可能。」
许传真透露，目前市场上对于太阳能的询问度越来越高，接受度亦然。 「8年前Plus Solar刚创办时，大家对于太阳能屋顶大都抱持观望的态度，甚至抱有质疑。」 他直言，当时太阳能屋顶只有小众市场能接受，直到大家看见太阳能的节能效果，使得市场在短时间获得快速成长。 他说，如今大家都意识到安装太阳能面板的好处，只是他们不愿意花钱。他透露，投资太阳能面板需耗资10万至300万令吉，视面积大小而定。「目前国内很多银行皆提供贷款， 协助企业们投资太阳能面板，不用担心资金周传不灵。」
「至于水力发电则不包含在20%目标内。」根据大马能源委员会在 《2017年大马半岛电源供应展望》报告中指出，2016年马来半岛有高达53%电力供应来自煤炭发电，天然 气发电则占约41 %，水力发电占约5%。
在冰岛只有33万人口的岛国，几乎全岛用电都来自可再生能源。此外， 90%的冰岛家庭利用地热能源直接供热。冰岛由化石燃料向可持续能源转型的故事，鼓舞了其他致力于提高可再生能源利用率的国家。图为冰岛的奈斯亚威里尔 (Nesjavellier) 地热发电厂。
太阳能是透过太阳能板吸收光并转换成电力，天气 晴朗艳阳高照发电装况就佳，可在曰间提供庞大电力，但 遇上阴雨天，就无电可用了。即便如此，许传真说：「你 根本不会发现。」他解释，即便有安装太阳能系统，但大厦也会连接国能电力，当太阳能不给力时，便会自动转用国能电力，完全不会影响日常操作。他形容，这就像是 家中的储水箱，你也不会知道花洒流出来的水是自来水还 是储水箱的水。基于没有储电功能，目前还不能全靠太阳 能供电。但他说，未来太阳能面板将往「太阳能加储能」 (solar-plus-storage )发展，就能把白天收集的电力储 存下来，供晚上时使用。
取决于用户的用电量，基本上能节省5至 50%。另外，基于商业大楼电费会比住家来得 贵，而且电费通常是工业单位的主要开销，安 装太阳能板能协助大大降低营运成本。我国一 直有偷电的歪风，不少住户为了节省电费在电 表上动手脚，但许传真不认为这会影响到太阳 能面板的发展，更何况随著逐步更换数码/智能 电表，偷电将将很容易被看出破绽。
性能保证是25年，但大都能使用逾30年。许传真说，屋顶就是所谓的现有资产，放著不用，10年后依旧毫无价 值；倘若我们在这屋顶 上做一笔投资，安装太阳能系统，能够节省电力开销 5至5的至少25 年，何乐而不 为呢?
很多人误以为在屋顶上装上太阳能 系统会使室内温度变高，然而事实正好相反。太阳能屋顶的原理是通过太阳辐 射在光伏板上，产生伏打效应，将太阳能转化为电能。矽材料的光伏发电板具有吸收太阳光的效果，可以隔热，在屋顶安装太阳能系统能为室内温度降低摄 氏5至6度。
太阳能屋顶的安装算是相当容易， 整个概念犹如乐高，采用堆砌方式安 装。商业建筑、厂家一般需时3至8个星 期；住家则只需一天。
相比起之前，价钱已经调低了不少。再加上能享有绿色投资税务回扣（GITA ) 等优惠。以住家来看，过往每千瓦单位的太阳能屋顶要价10令 吉；现在则是4令吉，使用10年可以回本。至于工 厂，过往需投资7年才能回本，但现在只需4年多。 太阳能屋顶的价格目前已进入稳定阶段，短 时间内不会有太大的调整。现在是推广时期，所以 政府才会给予多项优惠鼓励人民使用，倘若已走向 成熟，极有可能会取消。
相较于其他再生能源，如风力与水力发电，太阳能面板的设置条件限制较少，风力与水力发电必须在风力强劲处或水位有落差处，太阳能发电仅 需在日照充足之处就能架设。 太阳能发电建置成本较低，自家屋顶就能架 设，无须设置如风力发电机等庞大的设备。此外，若是自家屋顶使用太阳能发电，无须远距送电，更 可大大减少输电过程的耗损能量。
需要极大的面积安装太阳能屋顶，以便能够 吸收更多太阳光。许传真在大学时期，曾在教授的协助下，成功在父亲的汽车上安装了太阳能板，借由模板产生的电力把车子里的热气抽出去。但他坦 言，市场短时间内不会出现太阳能汽车，因为汽车表面的面积不足以安装能启动汽车的太阳能面板。
目前，在任何的屋顶上安装太阳能面板都需 要向大马永续能源发展机构（SEDA )提出申请。 许传真直言，有时审核时间过长会拖慢整个工程进度。另外 ， 他也希望政府能开放电力收购制度，让商家不局限于将再生能源电力卖给政府。 他同时表示，我国要在太阳能和国能电力里 切换自如，智能电网亦扮演一个非常重要的角色。 因为智能电网能在太阳能电力短缺或不给力时，立 马连接国能电力供电。不过他坦言，目前我国仍有 大部分电网属于旧式设计。
With an advantageous geographical position to generate electricity, Malaysia is guaranteed to receive sunlight 365 days with the exception of cloudy days. Realizing the potential and value of solar energy, the government implemented policies and initiatives such as NEM, pilot run of P2P and more to encourage a higher adoption of renewable energy. Now, business owners who invest in renewable energy can access benefits such as tax relief, lower operational costs, lower the level of carbon emissions and more.
Plus Solar was interviewed by Oriental Daily on how solar energy converts energy savings into cost savings for the average user.
Find the coverage below:
The perception of renewable energy in the eyes of people has improved. It's gaining popularity as a means of generating electricity.
The government introduced Net Energy Metering in 2016, a renewable energy plan to promote the installation of solar panel systems on the roof. With this users can install solar panels on the roof to generate and use power on their own. The remaining power generated by the solar panel system will be output to the TNB system. Tenaga Nasional "one to one" to offset electricity bills. This plan is for home, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users.
According to statistics, Malaysia has 3.2 million landed real estate, 450,000 shop houses, 90,000 townhouse factories, 21,000 independent factories and 1,000 shopping malls. Previously, consumers sold the remaining electricity generated by solar photovoltaic power generation systems to TNB at 31 sen per kilowatt, but purchased electricity from TNB at a price exceeding 50 sen per kilowatt-hour (kWh), resulting in a net electricity metering policy which did not get a good response in the past.
However, since January 1, last year, there has been no difference in the purchase price of electricity. In a ``1:1 offset'' manner, that is, the total electricity consumption minus the total electricity generation. This policy allows consumers to enjoy lower electricity costs, making solar roofs more attractive.
Increasing Malaysian Renewable Energy Consumption
Installing solar systems on roofs around the world is the dream of Founder and Chief Executive Officer Ko Chuan Zhen of Plus Solar Systems. The government has set a target of 20% of renewable energy power generation by 2025. However, as of the end of 2019, the proportion of renewable energy power generation was only 4%, and it only left with 5 years to catch up with the remaining 16%. Impossible task, but Chuan Zhen said: "Not impossible."
"When Plus Solar was just set up 8 years ago, everyone held a wait-and-see attitude on solar roofs, and even had doubts." He bluntly stated that at that time, solar roofs were only accepted by niche markets until everyone saw the energy-saving effect of solar energy. The market has grown rapidly in a short time. He said that today everyone has the benefit of installing solar panels, but they are not willing to spend money. He revealed that investing in solar panels will cost between RM100,000 to RM3 million, depending on the size of the area.
“Currently, there are many banks that provide loans to help people to invest in solar solutions, so you don’t have to worry about the financing”.
In achieving the 20% target, there is hydropower, wind power and solar power, but its projected that a large part of the 20% target would come from solar energy, in comparison to other energy sources, solar energy has a bigger advantage, not to mention that Malaysia's wind energy in not adequate to generate electricity. As for hydropower, it is not included in the 20% target. According to the Malaysian Energy Commission's "2017 Peninsular Power Supply Outlook" report, in 2016, as much as 53% of the electricity supply in the Peninsular came from coal-fired power generation, natural gas power generation accounted for about 41%, and hydropower generation accounted for 5%.
In Iceland, the population is only 33,000 and almost the whole island is using renewable energy. 90% of the households use geothermal energy to provide heat. The story of Iceland's transition from fossil fuels to sustainable energy has inspired other countries that are committed to improving the use of renewable energy. The picture shows the Nesjavellir geothermal power plant in Iceland.
Former Minister of Energy, Technology, Science, Climate Change and Environment (MESTECC), Yeo Bee Yin once said that Malaysia has advantages and capabilities in the field of solar energy development, because there are around 4 million buildings in the whole country. If these buildings are installed with solar panels, it can generate up to 73 GW per year. At present, the country's daily electricity demand is up to 18 GW.
Photo: Cheras IKEA, Elken building, Secret Recipe central kitchen and local slipper brand Asadi Factory are all Plus Solar's customers.
Depending on the user's power consumption, it can basically save 5% to 50%. In addition, based on commercial buildings, electricity bills are more expensive than homes, and electricity bills are usually the main expense of industrial units. Installing solar panels can help greatly reduce operating costs.
There is always a problem in Malaysia for stealing electricity. Many households are tampering with electricity meters in order to save electricity bills, but Ko does not think that this will affect the development of solar panels, especially since the meters are being gradually changed to digital / smart electricity meters, stealing electricity will be easily detected.
The performance guarantee is 25 years, but most of them can be used for about 30 years.
Caption: Ko said that the roof is a so-called existing asset, and even after not utilizing the roof for 10 years, it will remain the same, of no value. If we make an investment in installing solar on this roof, it will bring savings on 5%- 50% for at least 25 years in electricity. So why not invest in this space?
Many people mistakenly think that installing a solar system on the roof will increase the indoor temperature, but the opposite is true. The principle of the solar roof is that the solar radiation is radiated on the photovoltaic panel to produce the voltaic effect, which converts solar energy into electrical energy. Silicon photovoltaic panels have the effect of absorbing sunlight, which can block the heat radiated by the sun. Installing a solar system on the roof can reduce the indoor temperature between 5 to 6 degrees.
The installation of the solar roof actually is quite easy. The whole concept is like Lego. Commercial buildings, manufacturers generally take 3 to 8 weeks to install. And only one day at residential installation.
Compared with before, the price has been reduced a lot, coupled with the benefits of Green Investment Tax Allowance (GITA). In terms of homes, solar rooftops cost RM10 per kilowatt in the past; now it is RM4, which can pay for itself after 10 years of usage. As for the factory, it used to take 7 years to recover the cost, but now it only takes a little more than 4 years.
The price of solar roofs has now entered a stable stage and will not be adjusted much in the short term. Now is the promotion period, so the government will give a lot of incentives to encourage people to use it. If it has matured, it will most likely be discontinued.
Compared with other renewable energy sources, such as wind and hydropower, there are fewer restrictions on the installation conditions of solar panels. Wind power and hydropower must be installed where the wind is strong or the water level is different. Solar systems only require enough sun radiation to generate power.
The construction cost of solar power generation is low, and the roof can be set up without the need to install huge equipment such as wind turbines. In addition, if solar panels are used on the roof of the house, long-distance power transmission is not required, and the energy loss in the power transmission process can be greatly reduced.
Large area of solar roof is needed to be able to absorb more sunlight. Whilst in university, with the assistance of his professor, Ko successfully installed solar panels on his father's car and uses the electricity generated by the mould to extract and remove the heat from the car. However, he admits that solar vehicles will not appear in the market in a short time, because the area of the car surface is not enough to install solar panels that can run the car.
At present, installing solar panels on any roof requires an application to the Malaysian Sustainable Energy Development Agency (SEDA). Ko bluntly stated that sometimes the lengthy review time will slow down the entire project. In addition, he also hopes that the government will liberalize the system so that businesses are not limited to selling renewable energy power to TNB, in addition smart power grids play a very important role. This is because the smart grid can immediately connect to the national energy power supply when solar power is in short supply or not available. However, he frankly said that most power grids in Malaysia still have outdated designs.
Original Source: Oriental Daily Print
Edition: 5th of March 2020 (A25-27)
Author: 报导, 林鳳璇
Photo Credit: Plus Solar
Disclaimer: The contents of the reposted article have been edited to represent Plus Solar’s brand and services to its truest nature.